Empirically Normalized 7-Color Reflectance of the Moon


This empirically normalized Wide Angle Camera (WAC) color mosaic covers area from 60°S to 60°N and 0°E to 360°E; it is composed of seven wavelength bands (321 nm, 360 nm, 415 nm, 566 nm, 604 nm, 643 nm, and 689 nm). The 7-band mosaic was constructed from 137,400 color WAC images acquired from January 21, 2010 to January 31, 2013 over a broad range of lighting and viewing geometries.

Each pixel from the WAC observations were photometrically normalized to a standard geometry of 30° incidence angle, 0° emission angle, and 30° phase angle using an empirically derived photometric function similar to that of Boyd et al., 2012 and local topography provided by the GLD100 (WAC derived 100m/pixel Digital Terrain Model; Scholten et al., 2012). The median of normalized reflectance values (average n=142) for each 1600 m2 area were computed and stored in an equal area projection. The final archive products were created by transforming this to a simple cylindrical projection in eight regional tiles that encompass 60° latitude by 90° longitude at 64 pixels/degree (~475 meters/pixel) and 304 pixels/degree (~100 meters/pixel).

Chorographic accuracy of each WAC image was ensured using ephemeris provided by the LOLA and GRAIL teams (Mazarico et al., 2012) and an improved geometric camera model (Speyerer et al., 2014).


Product Name

Latitude Range

Longitude Range


0° to 60°

0° to 90°


-60° to 0°

0° to 90°


0° to 60°

90° to 180°


-60° to 0°

90° to 180°


0° to 60°

180° to 270°


-60° to 0°

180° to 270°


0° to 60°

270° to 360°


-60° to 0°

270° to 360°



Boyd, A.K., Robinson, M.S., and Sato, H. (2012), Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera Photometry: An Empirical Solution, In 43rd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Abstract #2795.

Mazarico, E., Rowlands, D.D., Neumann, G.A., Smith, D.E., Torrence, M.H., Lemoine, F.G., Zuber, M.T., (2012), Orbit determination of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Journal of Geodesy , Volume 86, Issue 3, pp.193-207, doi:10.1007/s00190-011-0509-4

Scholten, F., J. Oberst, K.-D. Matz, T. Roatsch, M. Wählisch, E.J. Speyerer, M.S. Robinson (2012), GLD100 – the near-global lunar 100 meter raster DTM from LROC WAC stereo image data, Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, doi:10.1029/2011JE003926.

Speyerer, E.J., R.V. Wagner, M.S. Robinson, A. Licht, P.C. Thomas, K. Becker, J. Anderson, S.M. Brylow, D.C. Humm, M. Tschimmel (2014), Pre-flight and On-orbit Geometric Calibration of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera, Space Science Reviews, doi:10.1007/s11214-014-0073-3

WAC Empirically Normalized Reflectance

3 band color (64 ppd)

Wac_emp_3band_e300n2250_064p Wac_emp_3band_e300n3150_064p Wac_emp_3band_e300n0450_064p Wac_emp_3band_e300n1350_064p
Wac_emp_3band_e300s2250_064p Wac_emp_3band_e300s3150_064p Wac_emp_3band_e300s0450_064p Wac_emp_3band_e300s1350_064p

689 nm wavelength (64 ppd)

Wac_emp_689nm_e300n2250_064p Wac_emp_689nm_e300n3150_064p Wac_emp_689nm_e300n0450_064p Wac_emp_689nm_e300n1350_064p
Wac_emp_689nm_e300s2250_064p Wac_emp_689nm_e300s3150_064p Wac_emp_689nm_e300s0450_064p Wac_emp_689nm_e300s1350_064p

643 nm wavelength (64 ppd)

Wac_emp_643nm_e300n2250_064p Wac_emp_643nm_e300n3150_064p Wac_emp_643nm_e300n0450_064p Wac_emp_643nm_e300n1350_064p
Wac_emp_643nm_e300s2250_064p Wac_emp_643nm_e300s3150_064p Wac_emp_643nm_e300s0450_064p Wac_emp_643nm_e300s1350_064p

604 nm wavelength (64 ppd)

Wac_emp_604nm_e300n2250_064p Wac_emp_604nm_e300n3150_064p Wac_emp_604nm_e300n0450_064p Wac_emp_604nm_e300n1350_064p
Wac_emp_604nm_e300s2250_064p Wac_emp_604nm_e300s3150_064p Wac_emp_604nm_e300s0450_064p Wac_emp_604nm_e300s1350_064p

566 nm wavelength (64 ppd)

Wac_emp_566nm_e300n2250_064p Wac_emp_566nm_e300n3150_064p Wac_emp_566nm_e300n0450_064p Wac_emp_566nm_e300n1350_064p
Wac_emp_566nm_e300s2250_064p Wac_emp_566nm_e300s3150_064p Wac_emp_566nm_e300s0450_064p Wac_emp_566nm_e300s1350_064p

415 nm wavelength (64 ppd)

Wac_emp_415nm_e300n2250_064p Wac_emp_415nm_e300n3150_064p Wac_emp_415nm_e300n0450_064p Wac_emp_415nm_e300n1350_064p
Wac_emp_415nm_e300s2250_064p Wac_emp_415nm_e300s3150_064p Wac_emp_415nm_e300s0450_064p Wac_emp_415nm_e300s1350_064p

360 nm wavelength (64 ppd)

Wac_emp_360nm_e300n2250_064p Wac_emp_360nm_e300n3150_064p Wac_emp_360nm_e300n0450_064p Wac_emp_360nm_e300n1350_064p
Wac_emp_360nm_e300s2250_064p Wac_emp_360nm_e300s3150_064p Wac_emp_360nm_e300s0450_064p Wac_emp_360nm_e300s1350_064p

321 nm wavelength (64 ppd)

Wac_emp_321nm_e300n2250_064p Wac_emp_321nm_e300n3150_064p Wac_emp_321nm_e300n0450_064p Wac_emp_321nm_e300n1350_064p
Wac_emp_321nm_e300s2250_064p Wac_emp_321nm_e300s3150_064p Wac_emp_321nm_e300s0450_064p Wac_emp_321nm_e300s1350_064p

643 nm wavelength (304 ppd)

Wac_emp_643nm_p900n0000_304p Wac_emp_643nm_p900s0000_304p
Wac_emp_643nm_e300n2250_304p Wac_emp_643nm_e300n3150_304p Wac_emp_643nm_e300n0450_304p Wac_emp_643nm_e300n1350_304p
Wac_emp_643nm_e300s2250_304p Wac_emp_643nm_e300s3150_304p Wac_emp_643nm_e300s0450_304p Wac_emp_643nm_e300s1350_304p